What is Dyslexia/Learning Disabilities and Can They be Helped?

How a kid performs in school greatly affects the rest of their lives. This changes the outcome of career, confidence, and their ability to take on the world. It is reported that 1 in 5 students or 15-20% of the population has a language-based learning disability, most commonly dyslexia. Unlike many other neurodevelopmental problems such as ADHD, autism, etc. these learning problems affect males and females similarly in numbers. No matter how smart a child is during school a lot of the time if he/she has poor reading skills, they consider themselves to be “dumb”. With how high the overall affected population is, this is a scary problem affecting much of our population. 

So what exactly is a learning disability? In 2002 the IDA Board of directors created a definition used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development or NICHD that follows. “Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”

There are six specific subtypes of issues that can be used to further define the specific dyslexia, but we will not get into those individually.

The ability to read and understand what is being read, is a greatly important tool for each person to have in order to learn effectively as well as interact with the world in a proper manor. The National Research council reported in 1998 that 40% of adult Americans did not feel comfortable enough with their reading skills to read a book from start to finish. This does not mean that these individuals are considered to be illiterate, but it does mean that their specific skills were not felt to be strong enough in order to enjoy reading.

Schools and government aid spend millions of dollars each year to help children that are falling behind and have lower than average reading skills. Although the extra attention does seem to help many of these kids, it is a very small gain that takes much extra help and still leaves the child far below their specific grade level skills. 

These issues all arise in the brain, how it is functioning, and even more specifically how it is processing input. A large emphasis is placed on the eyes, because they are the only part of the brain that extend outward of the skull and can be examined without any kind of special imaging. Although many of us take our sight for granted, it is one of the most amazing systems, and is infinitely complex. Very small muscles need to pull at specific angles, open and close to allow more or less light in, and work simultaneously together in order to follow objects, look at an object moving quickly towards us, or just simply be able to focus on another person during communication. 

Once information comes into our eyes, it is transmitted all over the brain to be decoded in order for us to interact with whatever the stimulus may be. We have a variety of different specialized cells in our eyes that are better at tracking things in our peripheral vision, see certain colors better than others, better at slow movement or fine detail recognition, and much more. Once again, all of these have to not only be working their own specific jobs properly, but also interacting between each other in the way that they are intended to. All of these visual inputs also work very closely with our ears or auditory input, which could be another location that can be the point of concern. 

Learning disabilities can originate in many different areas of the brain, and means someone is ineffectively doing their job. The brain essentially is “wired” improperly or “weak” in specific areas, and not firing to the strength and magnitude required to proficiently perform. Luckily our brains are plastic, and this simply means that they are always changing for better, or worse, and able to heal in ways far greater than we will ever be able to fully understand. 

Our brains are the single most complex object in the entire universe. There are more connections between our neurons (brain cells), than stars in the sky. Brains develop on a specific pattern in a specific way, and if a part of the chain does not do its job along the way problems can arise later in life. Luckily nearly all of these issues can be helped with the power of plasticity and the proper input to strengthen the areas of concern.

So what is to be done with learning problems? Firstly, checking how the person has developed, did they hit their milestones? Any issues during pregnancy? During the birth process? Injuries or illness early in life? These questions and many more can start to point the clinician to areas to start honing in on and further investigate. 

One of the first steps in the healing process is to ensure that all primitive reflexes are being suppressed in the proper way. Primitive reflexes are automated reflexes we are born with that help us to thrive at a young age because we are only born with around 20% of our adult brains. They live in our deep brain centers, but most of them should be gone by around 18 months of age. However this is not the case with nearly all neurodevelopmental kids/adults. Suppressing them is easy, but takes some time and active participation to strengthen areas in need of the brain and allow proper growth from there on.

Next is looking a lot at the eyes, as previously stated. Are the eyes tracking objects in space together the way they should be? Are all the muscles working in the proper fashion to help in doing their own specific roles? The eyes also have many “reflexogenic” or automated functions that are checked and worked on to point to specific areas in the brain that could be of concern. 

Many at home games, worksheets, and other exercises can be utilized to further promote specific functioning of the brain depending on the problems of concern and exact reasoning the issue has arose. Sometimes even simply changing up the child’s workspace, or limiting distraction can make significant changes in their ability to focus. 

Children are our future leaders, teachers, business owners, and so much more. Ensuring that they get the proper services and are equipped with the needed skillsets to take on any endeavor that they plan to pursue is one of the best ways to give your child the biggest and brightest future. This is all any parent wants for themselves, and their children. Always remember a healthy brain is the best way to a healthy life.

Dr. Jacob Boraas

Functional Healing Institute



Bed Wetting

A wet and uncomfortable way to wake up, and not your child’s fault 

A hidden epidemic sweeps across our cities each evening. It is usually kept secret and just assumed to be normal, or even told it is normal, but is it? Waking up to find a wet child in a wet bed is no easy way to start your day, but if you ask any parent they are certain it is just a phase and have been reassured “they will just grow out of it.” But what happens when they don’t? Looking around for help online many sources cite 5 years old as a “normal” time to still be frequently wetting the bed for children, and if they proceed to wet the bed later than 5, then maybe that is okay too. Your doctor may just choose to prescribe something to decrease urine production when they sleep. While this may help short term, this is not the best long term solution.

Digging into the anatomy of urinating there are two main centers in our brain entitled “micturition centers”. This is just fancy doctor speak for ‘pee centers’. They are located in our brain stem (pons) and in the frontal lobe, as seen below. 

Although these two areas are “primary” centers for urination, they have to work in accordance with the rest of our brain to fully fulfill their jobs, as well as communicate with the rest of our nervous system. Just like many other issues neurodevelopmentally that can be worked with, this simply means that there are potential imbalances or underactive superhighways in your child’s brain that are not functioning to their best potential. As a child grows much of their nervous system is not even present, your child is born with only about 20% of their adult brain. This means your child has no control of their sphincters which hold or release excrements until around 2 years of age. Depending on overall developmental progression, nutrition, etc. with your child individually, this can be a little sooner or later.

Overall this shows that frequent bed wetting into the late 2’s, 3’s, and older is not normal, however, it is common. Understandably, an accident every now and then after potty training is to be expected, and does not necessarily mean issues are present.

What can be done to help your children with bed wetting issues? There are specific ways to activate these parts of the brain or we can activate areas near their “pee centers” to increase blood flow and promote growth. A large majority of neurological underdevelopment in a vast majority of issues we work with can be caused by persistence of primitive reflexes. Primitive reflexes are training wheels for the brain, and although they are vital for our initial survival there is a point where they must also go away or they can hold us back. Our primitive reflexes reside in our brainstem when still present, and just working through these can make large changes in your children’s nightly activities. 

On top of primitive reflex remediation, we utilize therapies such as vibration, frequencies, smells, colors, chiropractic adjustments, and more to benefit overall health of your child specifically for their needs, and their body. We understand that this can be an embarrassing and incredibly frustrating time for kids and parents alike so we work to add as many extra modalities necessary to make this phase as short and sweet as possible. Like many other conditions that we work through, this may also include some at home exercises for mom and dad to perform with the child to promote neurologic change. 

Remember that phrases like; “your child is just a late bloomer,” “they will grow out of it,” or “it’s just a phase” are not really diagnoses of any kind, and better answers can usually be found. 

If your child or a child you know is suffering from bed wetting issues and are interested in setting up a free consult to discuss further or an initial neurologic exam with Dr. Jake, schedule an appointment today.  

Dr Jake Boraas

Functional Healing Institute